Use the drop-down boxes above to navigate through the Website  
Return to Reasoning List

Here is a link to this page:

Sarcophagus of His and Her Majesty

1 - 1011 - 2021 - 3031 - 4041 - 5051 - 53
Time Zone: EST (New York, Toronto)
Messenger: SunofMan Sent: 1/19/2008 8:37:02 PM

I found this relevant to the reasoning, and beautiful as well...


Ethiopian Philosophy


Under the title mentioned, my ambition is to introduce to you a subject on Ethiopian philosophy and presentation of a profile on the life and works of Ethiopian philosophers.

I find the task of discussing Ethiopian philosophy difficult. To avoid distortion and save myself from messing in the field I know very little of, I preferred to quote at length from a book by Professor Claude Sumner, who is "a Canadian by Birth, and an Ethiopian by choice", to use his words-- the very words that sum up his life and his works.

To give you context of reading, I would like to say few words on the Ethiopian monasteries, and their role as educational centers. In history, the Ethiopian monasteries were endowed with Gult lands (benefit right to taxation) by kings. Monasteries were the only educational centers until modern time, and they financed scholars who could instruct courses on reading, writing, sacred music of the church, poetry, grammar, Qene, history and religious paintings. (By the way, the old and famous universities here in Europe had their origin in the monasteries). The Ethiopian monasteries vied among themselves to attract the best specialist in each of the fields mentioned. The educational program was very rigorous taking from four to seven years. Graduate of these schools could often start their own community, and some even ended up as philosophers. One of the philosopher was known by the name Zera Yaqob, (not the king who reigned between 1434-68). Zera Yaqob, the philosopher, wrote a philosophical work in 1667 titled in Geez as Hatata, which meant "to question bit by bit, piece-meal; to search into or through, to investigate accurately". Professor Sumner, commented that "it is an absolutely original work, the fruit of his own personal reflection". Sumner compares Zere Yaqob, with his contemporary western philosopher, Rene Descartes, author of Discourse on Method (1637). "In both philosophers one finds a method,the occasion for a critical inquiry, the necessity for such an inquiry, a criterion which leads to the establishment of a basic principle that is applied in both authors theodicy, ethics and psychology (and in Descartes to cosmology). In both also the method of inquiry is revolutionary, although its roots are deeply theological..."

After long and arduous work on Ethiopian philosophical anthropology,including the continent of Africa, Professor Sumner wrote synthesis of his works in a book entitled "The Source of African Philosophy: The Ethiopian Philosophy of Man", Stutgart 1986. He found out that, "at the source of Ethiopian philosophy, of African philosophy, throbs the philosophy of man", which, as I understand differ from the western philosophy of things. In the Ethiopian philosophy "man occupies the centre of all concerns and views, of the archetypal images, the sapiential type, the thought patterns, the world view, the societal models, the ethical problems".

"I (Sumner) first made this observation as I was trying to delineate the profile of images used in the sapiential and philosophical works of Ethiopia. As my research on traditional or rationalistic Ethiopian philosophy was progressing, I saw a kind of architecture of images building itself before my very eyes, a real pyramid whose basis is nature and whose apex is man himself. But the human person is not only the most important element in this construction, man penetrates the pyramid itself like a line joining the summit to the centre of the base, since a distinction is made between material beings made by man and those that are not, and since certain elements of the material world, like time for instance, are considered under a human viewpoint."

"We are here at the heart of Ethiopia-- but would it not also be the heart of the whole of Africa? Symbols are rarely things in physical nature, as they exist in themselves, independently of any human usage or modification. The human seal has left its imprint through the entire structure of the basic images, an imprint which becomes more and more manifest as one goes down the scale of life and penetrates into matter moulded by man or at least reflecting his being. Man himself is the pre- eminent symbol: his body with its various organs and in particular his heart, internal centre of intellectual, emotional and moral operations; the illnesses that beset him, man as individual and as social unit accomplishing various functions in society; lastly man in the nigh infinite complexity of his functions. Whereas the Western world, the Greek in particular, has a tendency to consider things as they are in their impersonal objectivity, the African world, the Ethiopian in particular, is clearly anthropocentric. The Greek takes as starting point the world of external reality, which is distinct and measurable. The Ethiopian does not break away from the world in which he lives. He does not disengage himself from it, he does not stand out; he is part of it. His starting point is within himself, in his own personal experience. He does not try to express what is in his mind; he rather attempts to evoke it.

The Greek reconstructs and recreates the outside world within the framework of his own thought. The Ethiopian starts from what is already in his mind and endeavours to transmit it by suggestion. The Greek abstracts and arrives at the universal idea; the Ethiopian sticks to the particular and tries to absorb it. The Greek would like to conceive truth and to demonstrate it; the Ethiopian seeks to offer himself to it and to have it desired by others. The Western world is a world of things, the Ethiopian world is a world of persons. The Western world is the world of senses and of matter; its instrument in the last analysis will become geometrically rigid reason. It is interested in things which have nothing in common with the interior world. It is the offshoot of Greek thought and in particular of the civilization which has developed since Renaissance. However, it carries within itself its own contradiction: existentialist philosophy is a contemporary witness of an attempt in the Western world to find the concrete anew, to go the way which, leaving aside the Greek and German manner of edifying a whole system on the basis of abstraction, prefers to apply thought to the art of living. The Ethiopian universe is that of human beings and of human life".

That is the core of Ethiopian philosophy in brief. Those of you who are interested in further reading see the five volume works and a number of published articles by Professor Sumner, who devoted his life in teaching and research on Ethiopian philosophy. Against the background discussion on Ethiopian Philosophy, I will post sayings, Ethiopian thought expressions, in our next column.

Good days,

Tsegaye T.

Messenger: SunofMan Sent: 1/19/2008 9:20:15 PM

I found this excerpt from a larger article which I will attempt to link at the bottom. While I just stumbled upon this, it is interesting, relevant to the reasoning, but suspect as well, and shouldn't be counted as immediate truth, as there seems to be an agenda behind it. Hopefully Ones will come forward and share their insights.


Israelite Identity


§ 10. The Judges of Israel from Moses to
Samuel are contemporary with the second inter-
mediate period between the Middle Kingdom
and the New Kingdom in Egypt, as proven by
Immanuel Velikovsky.28) The remarkable fact that
Egypt is not mentioned in the Bible after the
Exodus, until King Saul defeated the Amalekites
in the wadi of El Arish (Avaris) on the border
between Israel and Egypt, is explained by their
identity with the Hyksos, who terrorized both
countries from their border capital during this
period.29) After the defeat of their mutual enemy,
the New Kingdom began in Egypt with the
eighteenth dynasty, while Israel also became a
monarchy. In this way, Immanuel Velikovsky
already arrived at identifying Queen Hatshepsut


28) See Immanuel Velikovsky (N. 27) chapter 2. The final
transformation of the ancient Israelite republic into a despotic
monarchy after more than 400 years was due to the fact that
Israel became too big and ungovernable after the defeat of its major
enemy, like Rome after the defeat of Carthage, cf. Ed Metzler,
Roots of Kabbalah (N. 14) Notes 42 and 43.
29) The Amalekites are descendants of Israel’s twin brother
(Genesis 36, 12), and their name ‘a-Maleq is a dialectal variant of
Hebrew ha-Malekh “king”, translated into Egyptian as “Hyksos”.


Ed Metzler

of Egypt with the so-called Queen of Sheba,
who visited King Solomon in Israel, leaving open
her relation to his wife.30)
§ 11. The so-called Queen of Sheba might
be the visiting sister of King Solomon’s Egyptian
wife, as Velikovsky incidentally assumed, � or
even be identical with her.31) The namelessness
of both is incompatible with the historicity of
the biblical account, which is turned into an
Arabian fairy-tale by Christian and Muslim inter-
pretation.32) In Jewish tradition Sheba is not


30) See Immanuel Velikovsky (N. 27) chapter 3, who fails
to analyze the family relationship of both. Since they were
members of the same royal family, they must have known each
other, cf. Ed Metzler, Ten Commandments (N. 6) Notearrow11, where
I first observed the identity of King Solomon’s Egyptian wife
with Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt.
31) In an incidental remark Immanuel Velikovsky, Peoples
of the Sea (German 1978) p. 129, expresses the view that both
werearrowsisters without giving reasons for it.
32) Cf. James B. Pritchard (ed.), Solomon and Sheba
(London 1974), Introduction pp. 7 and 12, who calls her
“a nameless queen of the Arabian kingdom of Sheba”, whose
namelessness “makes appropriate the designation of this story
as a fanciful oriental legend”. However, her apparent namelessness
is non-existent, if Sheba is not a geographical term, but her
proper name, cf. Lou H. Silberman, The Queen of Sheba in
Judaic Tradition (Ibid. p. 67). In this case, she is none other
than King Solomon’s Egyptian wife, whose introduction by name
must be expected next after the preceding chapters in the Bible.


Israelite Identity


a geographical, but a proper name, and from
Josephus Flavius we learn that she was the
ruler of Egypt and Ethiopia, as Queen Hatshepsut
was.33) Spelling her name in the ancient Hebrew
alphabet yields the Queen of Sheba (Malkat Sheba
= Malkah Hatsheba) by elision of the letter “h”
and faulty separation of words.34) Her identity
with the Egyptian wife of King Solomon is proven
by the fact that she returned home with her
enormous dowry after a divorce by consent, for
she did not give birth to a son.35)


33) Cf. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, VIII, 6; and
Immanuel Velikovsky (N. 27) pp. 118 and 151, who explains her
Ethiopian name Makeda from Hatshepsut’s prenomen Maatkare.
34) Her Hebrew name Sheba may also be influenced by the
triliteral hieroglyph Sheps “noble seated on chair” in Hatshepsut
reminding ofarrowHebrew Shebet “sit” and Shabat “rest”.
35) If she had had a son, the Bible would surely have
mentioned him as King Solomon’s successor, but it is known
that Queen Hatshepsut had only a daughter, see below Notearrow47.
Her “gifts” to King Solomon, consisting of 120 talents of gold
(1. Kings 10, 10 and 2. Chronicles 9, 9), constituted her dowry.
Otherwise, it would not make sense why she arrived with a load
of gold reminiscent of the reserves of an ancient Fort Knox,
and even less why she took back “what she had brought to the
king” (2. Chronicles 9, 12), which is a correct emendation of
1. Kings 10, 13: Asher Hevi’ah (Natenah) El (be-Yad) ha-Melekh
(Shelomoh); cf. ha-Ba’ be-Yado “what came into his hand” in
Genesis 32, 14, and the manus-marriage in Roman Law with its
in manum convenire (Gaius, Institutes, I, 108�113).


Ed Metzler

D. The Biblical Identification of the Bricks
of the Hawara Pyramid and the
Fayoum Exodus Route

§ 12. The historical identity of the people
of Israel is tied up with the Israelite identity of
the pyramid builders. Pre-dating Queen Hatshepsut
by about five centuries, as well as the beginning
and end of the pyramid age before her, is an
anti-Semitic trick which cheats Israel out of its
history, discredits the historicity of the Hebrew
Bible, and transforms it into a book of religious
fairy-tales, exploited by theology to promote
anti-Jewish prejudice and superstition. After all,
modern Egyptology rests upon the anti-Semitic
writings of Manetho as adopted by the church
fathers.36) Its disorientation extends to both time


36) Cf. Immanuel Velikovsky, Peoples of the Sea (N. 31)
p. 229. Of course, Manetho avoids mentioning the name of
Imhotep-Joseph in connection with pharaoh Zoser, for which
Wildung (N.arrow8) pp. 88 and 89 finds a good excuse, � or rather
rationalization. Denying the existence of Israel in Egyptian
history from the times of Joseph and Moses in the Old and
Middle Kingdom down to Hatshepsut and the Ptolemies may


Israelite Identity


and place: The land where Hatshepsut went,
and Imhotep came from is the land of Israel,
Canaan or Phoenicia rendered in Egyptian as
Punt or the Holy Land of God, but displaced
by Egyptology into the unexplored wilderness
of the deep south.37)
§ 13. Pyramid building started out as
public make-work projects for employing the
famine-stricken population of Egypt, who received


be called the Egyptological Auschwitz lie in analogy to the
denial of German neo-Nazis that Auschwitz ever happened.
What suits an anti-Semitic mind is the downfall of Israel as
mentioned on the Merneptah stele, being correctly dated by
Immanuel Velikovsky, Ramses II and his Time (German 1979)
pp. 210�218, to the first decades of the Babylonian Exile
(ca. 570 B. C. E.), but generally misdated more than 600 years
earlier, and believed to be the one and only mention of Israel
in Egyptian history. This absurd belief is geopolitical nonsense,
since desert-surrounded Egypt has always had Israel as its most
prominentarroweastern neighbor in peace and war.
37) Appropriately, this disorientation in time and place,
which amounts to mental sickness, was discovered in 1952 by
a professional psychiatrist, well-versed in ancient history: the
greatarrowImmanuel Velikovsky, From Exodus to King Akhnaton
(N. 3) chapters 3 and 4. Some fifteen years later, the German
Archaeological Institute in Cairo published a seemingly exhaustive
monograph entitled “Punt” by Rolf Herzog (1968), in which
Velikovsky’s important thesis that identifies Punt with Solomonic
Israel (Phoenicia) is simply missing. Both Velikovsky and Herzog
(pp. 19 and 20) rely on inscriptions clearly defining Punt as
Egypt’s neighbor to the east, which can be reached by land and
sea via Byblos or Elat, and according to Richard Lepsius quoted

Israel, Egypt, and Ethiopia

Messenger: SunofMan Sent: 1/24/2008 7:41:25 AM

Sandstone was a widely available building stone, relatively easy to quarry and use. Sandstone varies widely in hardness, from almost unworkable quartzite to loose, friable rock useless for building, so good quarries were not found everywhere. Limy sandstone or marl occurs in varieties intermediate between sandstone and limestone. A variety of coarse-grained sandstone called graywacke was also quarried near the Red Sea. White limestone was available from the quarries at Tura, on the Arabian side of the Nile opposite Giza, to be used for finish work. Alabaster was also available from Hatnub, east of the Nile about halfway between the Fayyum and Abydos. This is a fine-grained gypsum, beautiful and easily worked but too soft for external use. Near Elephantine, at the first cataract, syenite was quarried. This is a dark, very hard igneous rock of great durability. Near the second cataract, at Buhen, diorite, a similar rock, was available. Such rock is often called just granite, but the geologist would notice the almost complete lack of quartz and call it syenite or diorite instead.

Mycerinus sheathed the lower half of his pyramid in what Herodotus calls "Ethiopian rock," which means some kind of this syenite or diorite, floated down the Nile to his pyramid. This pink rock made a nice contrast with the upper limestone casing. Some of the pink rock still survives around the modern tourist entrance.

...Now It strikes I as very intriguing that Mycerinus would have used the Ethiopian granite for his own burial chamber, later being the same stone chosen by His Majesty for His own sarcophagus. The connection is there should we continue to investigate. Check the picture of the sarcophagus at the beginning of this reasoning and the I's will see same pink granite.


1 - 1011 - 2021 - 3031 - 4041 - 5051 - 53

Return to Reasoning List

Haile Selassie I