I would say race WAS present in the ancient world. In terms of nationalism: indigenous people liked to rule their indigenous lands and did not take kindly to outside invasion / foreign tribes. What I mean by this is one race interacting with another race did not cause any contention as far as I overs. But one race RULING over another, or one group of people taking land which wasn't theirs and ruling the indigenous has never ever gone down well in Kemet.... The haripu, the hyksos, the persians........ The walls are filled with imagery fighting against this, sometimes viciously. I agree, the white man of modern day expanded this into a Global racist SYSTEM (systemic racism) as well as remaining Colonial nationalists.
I leave the rest to RastaGoddess.
Historian and author J.C. DeGraft Johnson, contended that the Hyksos were African tribes who invaded Kemet / Egypt because, he contended, there whatever they left was indistinguishable from the Kemetians / Egyptians. Scientist and scholar, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop conjectured that the Hyksos were a conglomerate of nomadic tribes both African and non-African. Europeans scholars (most of them pseudo-scholars) contend, mostly out of racial motivation, that the Hyksos were White. Diop offered substantial evidence to support his contention.
A review of the material artifacts left by them show nothing distinguishing them from the Kemetians / Egyptians except for the writings principally by the Kemetians /Egyptians disdaining their presence. The representational artifacts show them looking like Kemetians not like any other ethnic or racial group.
It is my contention that there is nothing to distinguish them because they were not of high-culture and had nothing to offer instead they adopted intoto the culture of Kemet. Additionally, they did not invade or occupy Kemet / Egypt proper. They were expelled without making any significant impact or contribution to Kemet.
The Kemet / Egyptian government and adherents to the Kemet way of life were defeated after many battles that lasted over several hundred years. Eventually Kemet was invaded by the interloper's modern day writers now call, ironically, Assyrians. The Assyrian intervention into Kemet was short lived, they were eventually driven out by a coalition of Kemet and Nubian forces. The tribes of the people called the Martu continue to dominate in the Mesopotamian region till this very day under different names - including Sarbeans and now Jews and Arabs.
The Persians were a confederate of tribal groups of African and non-African races. Persia had been invaded and dominated by Aryan groups. Building upon the success of the Assyrians they were about to
In 332 BC the Greeks invaded and occupied Kemet / Egypt until the Roman invasion and domination. The Greeks, going further than their predecessors, moved their capital from their 'homeland' to Kemet / Egypt. There, they indulged themselves by imitating the Kemet / Egypt way of life, while plundering the country of its wealth and resources. Because of the status and regard for Kemet / Egypt knowledge and technology it became fashionable for Greeks to fabricate stories of being trained in Kemet / Egypt, many by way of copying Kemet / Egyptian text and affixing their names as the author. (See Stolen Legacy by George G.M. James, African Mother of Western Civilization - Yosef ben-Jochannan, Africa and Africans as Seen By Classical Writers - William Leo Hansberry, The Histories by Herodotus, and The Antiquities of Egypt - Diodorus Siculus.
The Greek invasion brought to an end the Dynastic period in Kemet / Egypt proper as the rightful rulers retired to Nubia and pressed battles against the Greeks from there.
In 225 BC the Romans invaded and occupied Kemet / Egypt
The Arabs continued the line of attack begun by the Martu - large scale enslavement of the population, embryonic racism (including race based discrimination), usurping of the indigenous culture and technology and claiming to be its creator. However, they went further a proclaimed that "God had no image" and set about destroying Kemet / Egyptian temples. In many instances they used the materials to build mosque. However they too could not escape the religious / philosophical influence of Kemet, as they were illiterate and without high-culture they appropriated Kemetic / Egyptian concepts and terminology to express religious-philosophical thoughts and ideas. For example Kaba is taken from the Kemet / Egypt language for spirit (Ka) and soul (Ba).
Continuing in the footsteps of their predecessors the Europeans came again as tomb robbers in search of wealth and fame."