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Messenger: Nesta1 Sent: 3/12/2019 5:47:41 AM



By Katie Pavid
11 July 2018

Scientists are sure that Homo sapiens first evolved in Africa, and we know that every person alive today can trace their genetic ancestry to there.

It has long been thought that we began in one single east or south African population, which eventually spread into Asia and Europe. But it seems that things were more complex than that - the link between those hominins and the humans on Earth today is neither straight nor simple.

A new paper, published in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, suggests that there is plenty of evidence that H. sapiens actually emerged within the interactions of many different populations across Africa. Most of these were often isolated from each other, connecting only occasionally.

Eleanor Scerri, of the University of Oxford and the lead author of the paper, says, 'Fossil, archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the idea of Homo sapiens evolving in just one population in a single region is too simplistic.

'In this paper, a group of 23 scientists worked together to present a much more complicated view of the early history of our species.'


It was long thought that our species, H. sapiens, probably appeared in east Africa about 200,000 years ago. Alternatively, some archaeologists argued from cultural evidence that our species had originated in southern Africa.

But in 2002, Chris Stringer, a Museum expert and co-author of the new paper, argued that our African origins might be 'multiregional', with different regions of Africa playing a part at different times.

Key research that supported this view was published in 2017. Early H. sapiens fossils from Morocco were analysed and dated at 315,000 years old - far older than other fossils identified for our species.

The fossils were found alongside tools of the Middle Stone Age, a cultural phase normally associated with much younger fossils of H. sapiens.

It demonstrated that northwest Africa must also have been important in the early evolution of our species.

Scerri says, 'We now think that a huge range of H. sapiens lived all over the continent, from Morocco to South Africa. As well as this, they all looked different to each other, with a wide range of facial features and skull shapes.

'Ancient H. sapiens appear to have been even more physically diverse than the world's populations are today, which doesn’t fit with the idea that they all started from one small group.'

In this new view of African multiregionalism, some of these ancient humans may also have interbred with archaic hominins in Africa, separately from encounters with Neanderthals and Denisovans in Eurasia.


We characterise modern humans as having small, slender faces, a protruding chin and a rounded skull.

These features start to emerge in scattered patterns in ancient Africa. The oldest known H. sapiens skulls have similar faces to modern humans, but their skulls are long, not round.

This suggests that our distinctive round skull and brain evolved within the H. sapiens species, not in those who came beforehand.

Some people have suggested that those fossils with different skull shapes might simply be an earlier, primitive species.

But Scerri, Stringer and their co-authors argue that the H. sapiens lineage goes back at least 500,000 years, and that it would have included more primitive fossils during its evolution.

Scerri says, 'All the features of the head that characterise contemporary humans do not appear until fairly recently, between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago.

'So instead of thinking that humans evolved in one clear line, perhaps semi-isolated populations of H. sapiens evolved alongside each other, at different rates. They were separated for thousands of years because they were so far apart, or because deserts and forests were in between them.

'H. sapiens likely descended from a set of interlinked groups of people, who were separated and connected at different times. Each one had different combinations of physical features, with their own mix of ancestral and modern traits.'


The Middle Stone Age emerged in Africa more than 300,000 years ago. Ancient humans began to use prepared core technologies (hand tools made of rocks like flint that were pre-shaped by flaking off small pieces, before larger flakes were removed), marking a change in human culture. Evidence of more complex stone tools is found across Africa and dates to about the same time period.

Different populations of humans made a variety of different tools. For instance, in Central Africa, people made heavy axes, bifacial lanceolates, blades and picks. In the grasslands and savannah of north Africa, there were tanged implements.

Although humans in Africa entered the Middle Stone Age around the same time, they created different tools depending on where they lived. These differences suggest that human populations were isolated from each other for a long time, perhaps due to geographic features such as deserts and rivers.

This evidence from across the continent adds weight to the idea that modern humans evolved all over Africa, not just in one area.

Scerri says, 'It is remarkable that different types of evidence seem to support each other, all of which are crystallising into an exciting new view of our origins.'

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 3/12/2019 6:39:58 AM

Again he fails to see the difference between a scientific fact and a theory and a hypothesis of conjecture

Or between modern humans and prehumans

Or the fact that Africa was not named Africa during the time he is referring to hence we cannot all be 'Africans' something named by the white man during his red eyed plans of colonialism

Or His Majestys own differentiation between Africans and the likes of Nesta

The agent continues to try and distort Rastafari

Messenger: RastaGoddess Sent: 3/12/2019 7:59:58 AM

They can fool some people sometimes but they can’t fool all the people all of the time.

Babble on Babylon

Messenger: Nesta1 Sent: 3/13/2019 2:08:26 AM

"Beyond every boundary, black, yellow, red and white
Each one seeking for the light
You hear it in the rain and you hear it in the wind
And it’s no gypsy talk I say"

"And the children will sing
And generations will ring
The children will sing and generations will ring out
If you get there before I do
Tell all my friends I’m coming too
So meet me in Afrika"


Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 3/13/2019 4:00:32 AM

Ivan is not a Rastafari

Messenger: The BANNED -- Hemphill Sent: 3/13/2019 8:14:02 AM

Ohh... Haha and now we see 'Nestas' favourite tactic when he is put up against a wall.. He just post song lyrics after song lyrics. I've caught him in this enough times to see the pattern..

Its quite hilarious really

Messenger: Empress lioness 9 Sent: 3/13/2019 8:24:46 AM

We have all wasted enough time on it.
InI find it too crazy that some one is created such discord in denying people their own heritage and doing it the name of anti racism.
When one is so certain of their rightness, no amount of pointing out their wrongness will be of benefit.
White man stole Afrikan people's and their history and Rastafari has been a movement of restoration but hey, here dey come again a do the same thing.

Jah didn't make us all different so we can pretend differences don't exist, but to treat each one with equality despite difference.


Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 3/13/2019 9:36:03 AM

Messenger: The BANNED -- HemphillSent: Today 1:14:02 PM
Ohh... Haha and now we see 'Nestas' favourite tactic when he is put up against a wall.. He just post song lyrics after song lyrics. I've caught him in this enough times to see the pattern..

Its quite hilarious really


Hemphill how you get banned and dem let this guy get away with this?


You are 100% right...

"Let us act as befits the dignity which we claim for ourselves as Africans, proud of our own special qualities, distinctions, and abilities."
- Haile Selassie I

Messenger: Nesta1 Sent: 3/13/2019 11:02:20 AM


1His foundation is in the holy mountains.

2 The Lord loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob.

3 Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of God. Selah.

4 I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man was born there.

5 And of Zion it shall be said, This and that man was born in her: and the highest himself shall establish her.

6 The Lord shall count, when he writeth up the people, that this man was born there. Selah.

7 As well the singers as the players on instruments shall be there: all my springs are in thee.


Messenger: Empress lioness 9 Sent: 3/13/2019 2:35:58 PM

Yes.. Because King James was of such great moral character, says it all.
How many folks know that King James (who commissioned the King James Bible and to whom it was dedicated) loved men and had sex with them? At the age of thirteen James fell madly in love with his male cousin Esmé Stuart whom he made Duke of Lennox. James deferred to Esmé to the consternation of his ministers. In 1582 James was kidnapped and forced to issue a proclamation against his lover and send him back to France.

Later, James fell in love with a poor young Scotsman named Robert Carr. “The king leans on his [Carrʼ;s] arm, pinches his cheeks, smooths his ruffled garment, and when he looks upon Carr, directs his speech to others.”
—Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, in a letter, 1611

Carr eventually ended the relationship after which the king expressed his dissatisfaction in a letter to Carr, “I leave out of this reckoning your long creeping back and withdrawing yourself from lying in my chamber, notwithstanding my many hundred times earnest soliciting you to the contrary...Remember that (since I am king) all your being, except your breathing and soul, is from me.” (See The Letters of King James I & VI, ed., G. P. V. Akrigg, Univ. of Calif. Press, 1984. Also see Royal Family, Royal Lovers: King James of England and Scotland, David M. Bergeron, Univ. of Missouri Press, 1991)
—Skip Church

King Jamesʼ; favorite male lovers were the Earl of Somerset and the Duke of Buckingham.
—Ben Edward Akerly, The X-rated Bible

Jamesʼ;s sexual orientation was so widely known that Sir Walter Raleigh joked about it in public saying “King Elizabeth” had been succeeded by “Queen James.”
—Catherine D. Bowen, The Lion and the Throne

1st Duke of Lennox, Esmé Stuart, King Jamesʼ; Lover

“James, aged thirteen, was completely starstruck by these new arrivals. After being brought up by dour Presbyterians and a rough-hewn bunch of nobles, he suddenly appeared from the schoolroom to find a group of charming, well-traveled, well-educated and attractive men. He was fascinated by them, welcoming his release from the Reformist nobilityʼ;s stranglehold. The attraction of these personable and worldly courtiers was a breath of fresh air, and they quickly played on his sensibilities. These new ‘favorites’ were the key to free him from the shackles of the Kirk and his schoolroom. Within a month of Esméʼ;s arrival, James had agreed to leave Stirling and to take his place at Holyrood, where Esmé reorganized the Court and his household on the French model.

There was more to Jamesʼ;s relationship with these favorites than kicking against his religious upbringing. Their charisma provided a sensual stimulus for him that he was not to enjoy with his interfering and insensitive wife, Anne of Denmark, when they married in 1589. They provided the glamour that he lacked, and there can be little doubt that his homosexuality stemmed from his early attraction to the androgynous Esmé. Well experienced in Court circles in France, Esmé took advantage of the sexual overtures of this vulnerable adolescent, twenty-four years his junior. James would openly clasp him in his arms to kiss him, shocking the Reformist clergy, who saw that Esmé ‘went about to draw the King to carnal lust’, while James showered him with offices and presents. By March 1580, the English ambassador, Bowes, was telling Elizabeth that Esmé was ‘called to be one of the secret counsel, and carryeth the sway in court’. By September ‘few or none will openly withstand anything that he would have forward’.

—Esmé Stuart, 1st Duke Of Lennox

King James 1 was a known homosexual who murdered his young lovers and victimized countless heretics and women. His cruelty was justified by his “divine right” of kings.
—Otto J. Scott, James the First

Although the title page of The King James Bible boasted that it was “newly translated out of the original tongues,” the work was actually a revision of The Bishopʼ;s Bible of 1568, which was a revision of The Great Bible of 1539, which was itself based on three previous English translations from the early 1500s. So, the men who produced the King James Bible not only inherited some of the errors made by previous English translators, but invented some of their own.

Desiderius Erasmus was a “Christian humanist” who collected Greek (and Latin) New Testament manuscripts and compared and edited them, verse by verse, selecting what he considered to be the best variant passages, until he had compiled what came to be known as the “textus receptus.” Early English translations of the Bible, like those mentioned above, were based on his “textus receptus.” Erasmus was also a monk whom some historians believe engaged in homosexual activities.

But without both King James and Erasmus, the most widely touted Bible in Christian history would never have been produced, the KJV (or shall we say, Gay-JV?) Bible.
—Skip Church

A physical weakling, as an adolescent James had shown himself to be a coward, who liked only to hunt, to read (which he did, prodigiously) and to talk. To protect himself he wore thick quilted doublets, so padded that they provided a kind of armor against any assassin who might attack him with a knife. When he revealed a sexual preference for men, falling in love with his cousin Esmé Stewart and elevating him to a position of authority on the royal council, some of his nobles kidnapped James and held him captive, banishing Stewart and controlling Jamesʼ;s every move. After nearly a year James escaped, but continued to resent his jailers; after he began to rule on his own behalf, at seventeen, he made it a priority to bring the turbulent Scots nobles under control.

As he aged James indulged his preference for handsome men, living apart from his wife. His doting fondness was part paternal, part erotic; he called his favorite George Villiers “sweet child and wife” and referred to himself as “your dear dad and husband.” But to his courtiers, the sight of the aging, paunchy, balding monarch, who according to one court observer had a tendency to drool, leaning on his paramours was utterly repellant.

The first of the kingʼ;s minions was Robert Carr, Groom of the Bedchamber, who the king elevated to earl of Somerset and appointed Lord Chamberlain. After six years of favors and royal gifts Carr was brought low, accused of murder and sent away from court. The second and greatest royal favorite, the extraordinarily handsome George Villiers, rose from cupbearer to Gentleman of the Bedchamber and ultimately to Earl of Buckingham.

“I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else,” James announced to his councilors, “and more than you who are here assembled.” He compared his love for the earl to Jesusʼ;s affection for the “beloved disciple” John. “Jesus Christ did the same,” the king said, “and therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had his John, and I have my George.”

With such pronouncements King James seemed to reach a new level of outrage, especially when he compounded his offense, in the view of many, by heaping Buckingham with costly jewels, lands, and lucrative offices.

—Royal Panoply, Brief Lives Of The English Monarchs
Carrolly Erickson, History Book Club

Additional Reading
Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity
Exactly how “Christian” Florence Nightingale was, or Dunant (founder of the International Red Cross), or Barton (founder of the American Red Cross) depends on whether you also believe that freethinking anti-Trinitarians, Universalists, mystics, and gays, can all be considered “true Christians.”…

Borrowed from the Web, since copy and paste has replaced real reasoning for some.)))


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Haile Selassie I