I can list a few that I'm well familiar with. I also found a list of post colonial Caribbean authors. Hope that helps!
Walter Rodney's How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Amilcar Cabral's National Liberation and Struggle, and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's "Writing Against Neocolonialism" reveal the political, economic, and social circumstances that formed the sensibility of most African writers.
Frantz Fanonís The Wretched of the Earth
(Fanon was a Martinique-born intellectual who was also a member of the Algerian National Liberation Front, and his writings have inspired numerous people across the globe in struggles for freedom from oppression and racially motivated violence.)
One of the most significant postcolonial novels to emerge in this period was Chinua Achebeís Things Fall Apart (1958).
(Published in the late 1950s, Achebe wrote the book at the end of the British colonial period in Nigeria but depicted an earlier moment in Nigerian history. The novel tells the story of Okonkwo, an Igbo village leader in the late 19th century who must witness the tragic demise of his culture at the hands of colonialism.)
Half of a Yellow Sun by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Midnight's Children by Salman Rushdie
* Edward "Kamau" Brathwaite (Barbados)
* Erna Brodber (Jamaica)
* Wilson Harris (Guyana)
* C. L. R. James
* Jamaica Kincaid (Antigua)
* George Lamming (Barbados)
* Earl Lovelace (Trinidad)
* V.S. Naipaul (Trinidad)
* Lakshmi Persaud
* Caryl Phillips
* Jean Rhys (Dominica)
* Derek Walcott (St. Lucia)