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Alternate Abyssinian views of His Majesty

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Time Zone: EST (New York, Toronto)
Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/22/2014 9:36:29 AM

Has anyone ever reasoned with an individual from Eritrea or from Sudan or Somalia about His Majesty? While I'm sure there are differing views, from what I have seen and heard from these brothers in the West, is really disturbing. Not so long ago a student brother from Eritrea was telling I how I was wrong to follow HIM for he is responsible for the murder of so many Eritrean people and such, and saw him as a figure against the freedom of their land

- as I tried to explain to the brother, I'm sure his views are based off of propaganda. from what I know haile selassie wanted to FREE Eritreans from Italian or British rule. the land mass has always historically been one. I think while the Italians were occupying eritrea, they would have used their propaganda machine and such to paint HIM in a false way. they were being given the image of Selassie I through the eyes of Mussolini.....

Has anyone ever come across simila lr encounters and opinions from brothers or sisters from that area of a once unified land? and any more information would be appreciated. this is something which really needs to be cleared up for history sake and that of our extended Eritrean family.

Why were these opinions formed?

this is an old post from a Rasta in Eritrea, again telling us of the skewed public image of HIM

Time Zone: EST (New York, Toronto)
Messenger: Young Lion Sent: 4/8/2010 7:41:58 PM

I'm eritrean, but i claim Ethiopia because thats where my father is from and we are from the tribe ob Abeshan. But what i want from a knowledgable Rastafarian is what did Haile Selassie try to do with Eritrea. Eritreans suffer alot of oppression from Italians and they blame Menelik for not pushing the Italians out of Eritrea in the battle of adawa, they blame Mengustu for destroying thier country and same with Selassie. If Haile Selassie felt eritreans were one with Ethiopia why did he have the British to rule them for 9 years, i Just want to know what really was going on in Eritrea during Haile Selassie time?



For anybody who isn't too familiar with the history:

as adapted from the history of Eritrea via Wikipedia:
Medieval history
Italian colonizationEdit
Main article: Italian Eritrea
The boundaries of modern Eritrea and the entire region were established during the European colonial period between Italian, British and French colonialists as well as the lone landlocked African Empire of Abyssinia which found itself surrounded and its boundaries defined by said colonial powers.

During the medieval period and prior to the Ottoman occupation of Debarewa in 1557, Eritrea’s historical name was Bahre-Negash (Kingdom of the Sea). Later with the fall of the Kingdom, the area was called Medri Bahri ("Land of the Sea") until the Italians came to the area in the late 19th century.

The Kingdom of Italy created Eritrea at the end of the nineteenth century, using the classical name for the Red ("erythra") Sea. The colony of Italian Eritrea was established in 1890 (and lasted officially until 1947).

Italian occupation of Massawa and formation of the colony
Later, as the Egyptians retreated out of Sudan during the Mahdist rebellion, the British brokered an agreement whereby the Egyptians could retreat through Ethiopia, and in exchange they would allow the Emperor to occupy those lowland districts that he had disputed with the Turks and Egyptians.

Catholic Cathedral of Asmara, built by the Italians in 1922
Emperor Yohannes IV believed this included Massawa, but instead, the port was handed by the Egyptians and the British to the Italians, who united it with the already colonised port of Asseb to form a coastal Italian possession. The Italians took advantage of disorder in northern Ethiopia following the death of Emperor Yohannes IV in 1889 to occupy the highlands and established their new colony, henceforth known as Eritrea, and received recognition from Menelik II, Ethiopia's new Emperor.

The Italian possession of maritime areas previously claimed by Abyssinia/Ethiopia was formalized in 1889 with the signing of the Treaty of Wuchale with Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia (r. 1889–1913) after the defeat of Italy by Ethiopia at the battle of Adua where Italy launched an effort to expand its possessions from Eritrea into the more fertile Abyssinian hinterland. Menelik would later renounce the Wuchale Treaty as he had been tricked by the translators to agree to making the whole of Ethiopia into an Italian protectorate. However, he was forced by circumstance to live by the tenets of Italian sovereignty over Eritrea.

The Italians brought to Eritrea a huge development of Catholicism and by the 1940 nearly one third of the Eritrean population was catholic, mainly in Asmara where many churches were built.

Italian administration of Eritrea brought improvements in the medical and agricultural sectors of Eritrean society. Furthermore, the Italians employed many Eritreans in public service (in particular in the police and public works departments) and oversaw the provision of urban amenities in Asmara and Massawa. In a region marked by cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity, a succession of Italian governors maintained a notable degree of unity and public order. The Italians also built many major infrastructural projects in Eritrea, including the Asmara-Massawa Cableway and the Eritrean Railway.[2]

After the establishment of new transportation and communication methods in the country, the Italians also started to set up new factories, which in turn made due contribution in enhancing trade activities. The newly opened factories produced buttons, cooking oil, and pasta, construction materials, packing meat, tobacco, hide and other household commodities. In the year 1939, there were around 2,198 factories and most of the employees were Eritrean citizens, some even moved from the villages to work in the factories.The establishment of industries also made an increase in the number of both Italians and Eritreans residing in the cities. The number of Italians residing in the country increased from 4,600 to 75,000 in five years; and with the involvement of Eritreans in the industries, trade and fruit plantation was expanded across the nation, while some of the plantations were owned by Eritreans.[16]

Benito Mussolini's rise to power in Italy in 1922 brought profound changes to the colonial government in Eritrea. Mussolini established the Italian Empire in May 1936. The fascists imposed harsh rule that stressed the political and racial superiority of Italians. Eritreans were demoted to menial positions in the public sector in 1938.

Map of the Italian Empire (1936–1941), that included Eritrea, Somalia and Ethiopia
Eritrea was chosen by the Italian government to be the industrial center of the Italian East Africa.[17]

The Italian government continued to implement agricultural reforms but primarily on farms owned by Italian colonists. The Mussolini government regarded the colony as a strategic base for future aggrandizement and ruled accordingly, using Eritrea as a base to launch its 1935–1936 campaign to colonize Ethiopia.

The best Italian colonial troops were the Eritrean Ascari, as stated by Italian Marshall Rodolfo Graziani and officer Amedeo Guillet [3].

Asmara development
Asmara was populated by a large Italian community and the city acquired an Italian architectural look. One of the first building was the Asmara President's Office: this former "Italian government's palace" was built in 1897 by Ferdinando Martini, the first Italian governor of Eritrea. The Italian government wanted to create in Asmara an impressive building, from where the Italian Governors could show the dedication of the Kingdom of Italy to the "colonia primogenita" (first daughter-colony) as was called Eritrea.[18]

Today Asmara is worldwide known for its early twentieth-century Italian buildings, including the Art Deco Cinema Impero, "Cubist" Africa Pension, eclectic Orthodox Cathedral and former Opera House, the futurist Fiat Tagliero Building, neo-Romanesque Roman Catholic Cathedral, and the neoclassical Governor's Palace. The city is littered with Italian colonial villas and mansions. Most of central Asmara was built between 1935 and 1941, so effectively the Italians managed to build almost an entire city, in just six years.[19]

The city of Asmara had a population of 98,000, of which 53,000 were Italians according to the Italian census of 1939. This fact made Asmara the main "Italian town" of the Italian empire in Africa.In all Eritrea the Italian Eritreans were 75,000 in that year.[4]

Many industrial investments were done by the Italians in the area of Asmara and Massawa, but the beginning of World War II stopped the blossoming industrialization of Eritrea. When the British army conquered Eritrea from the Italians in spring 1941, most of the infrastructures and the industrial areas were extremely damaged.

The biggest extension of Eritrea was reached during the Italian empire (1936–1941), when northern parts of conquered Ethiopia were assigned to Eritrea by the Italians as a reward for the Eritrean "Ascaris'" help in the conquest of Ethiopia
The following Italian guerrilla war was supported by many Eritrean colonial troops until the Italian armistice in September 1943. Eritrea was placed under British military administration after the Italian surrender in World War II.

The Italian Eritreans strongly rejected the Ethiopian annexation of Eritrea after the war: the Party of Shara Italy was established in Asmara in July 1947 and the majority of the members were former Italian soldiers with many Eritrean Ascari (the organization was even backed up by the government of Italy). The main objective of this party was Eritrea freedom but they had a pre-condition that stated that before independence the country should be governed by Italy for at least 15 years (like happened with Italian Somalia).

British administration and federalizationEdit
British forces defeated the Italian army in Eritrea in 1941 at the Battle of Keren and placed the colony under British military administration until Allied forces could determine its fate. The first thing the British did was to remove the Eritrean industries (of Asmara and Massawa) to Kenya, as war compensation. They even dismantled parts of the Eritrean Railway system.[20]

In the absence of agreement amongst the Allies concerning the status of Eritrea, British administration continued for the remainder of World War II and until 1950. During the immediate postwar years, the British proposed that Eritrea be divided along religious lines and parceled off to Sudan and Ethiopia. The Soviet Union, anticipating a communist victory in the Italian polls, initially supported returning Eritrea to Italy under trusteeship or as a colony. Arab states, seeing Eritrea and its large Muslim population as an extension of the Arab world, sought the establishment of an independent state.

Ethiopian ambition in the Horn was apparent in the expansionist ambition of its monarch when Haile Selassie claimed Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. He made this claim in a letter to Franklin D. Roosevelt, at the Paris Peace Conference and at the First Session of the United Nations.[21] In the United Nations the debate over the fate of the former Italian colonies continued. The British and Americans preferred to cede Eritrea to the Ethiopians as a reward for their support during World War II. "The United States and the United Kingdom have (similarly) agreed to support the cession to Ethiopia of all of Eritrea except the Western province. The United States has given assurances to Ethiopia in this regard."[22] The Independence Bloc of Eritrean parties consistently requested from the UN General Assembly that a referendum be held immediately to settle the Eritrean question of sovereignty.

A United Nations (UN) commission was dispatched to the former colony in February 1950 in the absence of Allied agreement and in the face of Eritrean demands for self-determination. It was also at this juncture that the US Ambassador to the UN, John Foster Dulles, said, "From the point of view of justice, the opinions of the Eritrean people must receive consideration. Nevertheless the strategic interest of the United States in the Red Sea basin and the considerations of security and world peace make it necessary that the country has to be linked with our ally Ethiopia."[23] The Ambassador's word choice, along with the estimation of the British Ambassador in Addis Ababa, makes quite clear the fact that the Eritrea aspiration was for Independence.[21]

The commission proposed the establishment of some form of association with Ethiopia, and the UN General Assembly adopted that proposal along with a provision terminating British administration of Eritrea no later than September 15, 1952. The British, faced with a deadline for leaving, held elections on March 16, 1952, for a representative Assembly of 68 members, evenly divided between Christians and Muslims. This body in turn accepted a draft constitution put forward by the UN commissioner on July 10. On September 11, 1952, Emperor Haile Selassie ratified the constitution. The Representative Assembly subsequently became the Eritrean Assembly. In 1952 the United Nations resolution to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia went into effect.

The resolution ignored the wishes of Eritreans for independence, but guaranteed the population some democratic rights and a measure of autonomy. Some scholars have contended that the issue was a religious issue, between the Muslim lowland population desiring independence while the highland Christian population sought a union with Ethiopia. Other scholars, including the former Attorney-General of Ethiopia, Bereket Habte Selassie, contend that, "religious tensions here and there...were exploited by the British, [but] most Eritreans (Christians and Moslems) were united in their goal of freedom and independence."[21] Almost immediately after the federation went into effect, however, these rights began to be abridged or violated. These pleas for independence and referendum augured poorly for the US, Britain and Ethiopia, as a confidential American estimate of Independence Party support amounted to 75% of Eritrea.[24]

The details of Eritrea's association with Ethiopia were established by the UN General Assembly resolution of September 15, 1952. It called for Eritrea and Ethiopia to be linked through a loose federal structure under the sovereignty of the Emperor. Eritrea was to have its own administrative and judicial structure, its own flag, and control over its domestic affairs, including police, local administration, and taxation.[21] The federal government, which for all intents and purposes was the existing imperial government, was to control foreign affairs (including commerce), defense, finance, and transportation. As a result of a long history of a strong landowning peasantry and the virtual absence of serfdom in most parts of Eritrea, the bulk of Eritreans had developed a distinct sense of cultural identity and superiority vis-à-vis Ethiopians. This combined with the introduction of modern democracy into Eritrea by the British administration gave Eritreans a desire for political freedoms alien to Ethiopian political tradition. From the start of the federation, however, Haile Selassie attempted to undercut Eritrea’s independent status, a policy that alienated many Eritreans. The Emperor pressured Eritrea’s elected chief executive to resign, made Amharic the official language in place of Arabic and Tigrinya, terminated the use of the Eritrean flag, imposed censorship, and moved many businesses out of Eritrea. Finally, in 1962 Haile Selassie pressured the Eritrean Assembly to abolish the Federation and join the Imperial Ethiopian fold, much to the dismay of those in Eritrea who favored a more liberal political order.

War for independenceEdit
Main article: Eritrean War of Independence

Map of Eritrea attached to Ethiopia.
Militant opposition to the incorporation of Eritrea into Ethiopia had begun in 1958 with the founding of the Eritrean Liberation Movement (ELM), an organization made up mainly of students, intellectuals, and urban wage laborers. The ELM, under the leadership of Hamid Idris Awate, a former Eritrean Ascari, engaged in clandestine political activities intended to cultivate resistance to the centralizing policies of the imperial Ethiopian state. By 1962, however, the ELM had been discovered and destroyed by imperial authorities.

Emperor Haile Selassie unilaterally dissolved the Eritrean parliament and annexed the country in 1962. The war continued after Haile Sellassie was ousted in a coup in 1974. The Derg, the new Ethiopian government, was a Marxist military junta led by strongman Mengistu Haile Mariam.

During the 1960s, the Eritrean independence struggle was led by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF). In 1960 Eritrean exiles in Cairo founded the Eritrean Liberation Front. In contrast to the ELM, from the outset the ELF was bent on waging armed struggle on behalf of Eritrean independence. The ELF was composed mainly of Eritrean Muslims from the rural lowlands on the western edge of the territory. In 1961 the ELF's political character was vague, but radical Arab states such as Syria and Iraq sympathized with Eritrea as a predominantly Muslim region struggling to escape Ethiopian oppression and imperial domination. These two countries therefore supplied military and financial assistance to the ELF.

The ELF initiated military operations in 1961 and intensified its activities in response to the dissolution of the federation in 1962. By 1967 the ELF had gained considerable support among peasants, particularly in Eritrea's north and west, and around the port city of Massawa. Haile Selassie attempted to calm the growing unrest by visiting Eritrea and assuring its inhabitants that they would be treated as equals under the new arrangements. Although he doled out offices, money, and titles mainly to Christian highlanders in the hope of co-opting would-be Eritrean opponents in early 1967, the imperial secret police of Ethiopia also set up a wide network of informants in Eritrea and conducted disappearances, intimidations and assassinations among the same populace driving several prominent political figures into exile. Imperial police fired live ammunition killing scores of youngsters during several student demonstrations in Asmara in this time. The imperial army also actively perpetrated massacres until the ousting of the Emperor by the Derg in 1974.

By 1971 ELF activity had become enough of a threat that the emperor had declared martial law in Eritrea. He deployed roughly half of the Ethiopian army to contain the struggle. Internal disputes over strategy and tactics eventually led to the ELF's fragmentation and the founding in 1972 of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF). The leadership of this multi-ethnic movement came to be dominated by leftist, Christian dissidents who spoke Tigrinya, Eritrea's predominant language. Sporadic armed conflict ensued between the two groups from 1972 to 1974, even as they fought Ethiopian forces. By the late 1970s, the EPLF had become the dominant armed Eritrean group fighting against the Ethiopian Government, and Isaias Afewerki had emerged as its leader. Much of the material used to combat Ethiopia was captured from the army.

By 1977 the EPLF was poised to drive the Ethiopians out of Eritrea. However, that same year a massive airlift of Soviet arms to Ethiopia enabled the Ethiopian Army to regain the initiative and forced the EPLF to retreat to the bush. Between 1978 and 1986 the Derg launched eight unsuccessful major offensives against the independence movement. In 1988 the EPLF captured Afabet, headquarters of the Ethiopian Army in northeastern Eritrea, putting approximately a third of the Ethiopian Army out of action, prompting the Ethiopian Army to withdraw from its garrisons in Eritrea's western lowlands. EPLF fighters then moved into position around Keren, Eritrea's second-largest city. Meanwhile, other dissident movements were making headway throughout Ethiopia. At the end of the 1980s the Soviet Union informed Mengistu that it would not be renewing its defense and cooperation agreement. With the withdrawal of Soviet support and supplies, the Ethiopian Army's morale plummeted, and the EPLF, along with other Ethiopian rebel forces, began to advance on Ethiopian positions. In 1980 the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal determined that the right of the Eritrean people to self-determination does not represent a form of secession.

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/22/2014 9:36:40 AM


On our current visit to Eritrea, We felt extremely happy to note and realize that the welcome accorded Us by the people is sincere, deep and genuine. We have already spoken clearly about the administration of Eritrea, of the past and future. That Eritrea, before the federal union with Ethiopia, stayed separated for 60 years by the design of imperialists and colonialists and not by the will of God, has been manifested by the ultimate unity achieved. The struggle undertaken by the people to effect the reunification of Eritrea with Ethiopia is also very clear.
It is not necessary to enumerate countries where the people and the entire country having lost unity, spiritual or otherwise, have become playgrounds and laughing stocks of outsiders. The historical events of certain countries bear witness to this fact. In our own times, there are those expansionists who by shedding blood, desire to achieve their ambition and by dismembering themselves they are seen as tools for alien interests. Our people from Ethiopia shed blood, to save them from disintegration. Those personalities who believe in freeing a country by secession are selfish and prey to outsiders. We will not accept their motives.
The Eritrean people and their representatives work not only for Eritrea but for the entire Ethiopia too. They have worked for the welfare of the country even before the hardship. What brings people together is not only history, culture and geography but also the various voluntary social associations as well as economic interests and sharing infirmities or benefits in common; that is very clear.
Anyone, therefore, by investing his capital and wealth enjoys the benefits for himself and this situation provides general well-being by strengthening the unity of a people and by raising its living standard too.
In order to amass private wealth and benefit from it in peace and security, it is necessary to comply with the fundamental precepts of the society. So being, even the accumulation of private property emanates from a harmonious social life and entails certain obligations. One of these typical obligations would be to put one’s private capital into use. Since wealth is acquired by hard labour it is necessary to manifest an effort by using the invested capital.

Development Plans

The natural resources such as mines and others found in Eritrea and the other parts of Ethiopia remain the property of the Government and would be utilized in such effective ways facilitating the speedy progress and development of the Empire. It is also the duty of the people to render their service to the Government and the Government in turn is bound to serve the people.
Though it is difficult to effect the overall development of a nation in a short time, besides the projects which have already been accomplished, We have laid down for the development of this part of Our country the projects outlined in the Second Five-Year Plan.
The projected development plan includes:

1. The Zula Dam and the oil-finding survey on the Red Sea Coast already costing Eth. $2,000,000. The fact
2. that We have spent so much while the federation was still in existence is proof of Our belief in the oneness of Eritrea and Ethiopia. We are negotiating with private firms to discover oil and We are confident to effect an agreement with the firms concerned when the oil is discovered.
3. The survey for the discovery of copper and iron ore would be completed in the near future.
4. A new organization would be established to encourage the development of cotton plantations in the Province of Tessenei and the other lowlands and at the same time to advise and grant loans to farmers.
5. Studies for the establishment of a cement factory have been completed and the factory would be in operation soon.
6. We have allotted Eth. $1,000,000 for transport, forestry, irrigation systems and for administrative purposes.
7. An additional Eth. $2,000,000 has been added to the Eth. $500,000 previously allocated to construct the road from Areza to Bosheka.
8. We have further approved to restudy the tax levied on fuels consumed by agricultural machineries.
9. To help the people inhabiting the lowlands We have, as We expressed earlier, made arrangements for the Areza-Bosheka road.
The outlined are projects undertaken by the Government. We have also formulated plans to help private enterprises help themselves and the people. The Development Bank would be founded to realize Our concern on this line.
We have also made arrangements for Our people to benefit by purchasing shares from the private companies. Our endeavour to help the people also pre-supposes that the people should help Us. The wealth of Eritrea is the wealth
of Ethiopia and the wealth of Ethiopia is the wealth of Eritrea.

The realization of such a plan to effect the overall development of the national interest requires the active participation of the people and We have as such given instructions to members of the Eritrean Assembly to labour for the cause. This also calls for the co-ordination of the efforts exerted here as well as in the capital. The Police Force has so far rendered service and it would be given help to continue its service.
It is Our fervent hope that Almighty God will guide and bring Our efforts to fruition.

Jan. 18, 1963.

Selected Speeches of His Imperial Majesty

Messenger: Ark I Sent: 1/23/2014 11:02:26 PM

I have had some Eritrians express their dislike of Haile Selassie I. Some Eritrians fought alongside Ethiopia and some fought against. The propaganda came from Italians, British and Eritrians, and likely other countries with"interest" in the area.

Here is a speech from Haile Selassie I.

Visit To Eritrea

Wednesday, June 27, 1962

The Lion of Judah has prevailed
Haile Selassie I, Elect of God
King of Kings of Ethiopia

As We appear among you today, as is customary with the visits We make now and then to witness for Ourselves the administrative efficiency on the spot and also to effectuate matters of major importance, We shall now talk to you not only as an Emperor but also as an Ethiopian. There is nothing particularly new at this time to account for Our intention to give you a broad view of Our opinion today. You, who are listening to Us now, the old, the young and those in school out in the country, since it is We who are bearing the responsibility of guiding the present and coming generations on the right path, it is imperative that we all should serve our country and people dedicatedly and according to God"s wish.

It is no surprise to Us, either now or before, if an aggressor should make any kind of move through Eritrea, since there is nothing unusual in this. What We have found a little surprising, however, is that, whereas the people of Eritrea have always supported their freedom and gallantry by deeds, there should still exist among a people with such a fine record of history some hypocrites who are serving as instruments for marring past history and betraying it to aliens.

You know that, though small in number, there have always been among us some alien puppets. Though they are insignificant in number, we can attain practical results in the endeavours of progress we are making only if there is absolute unity among ourselves. We have been patient until now with the hope that they will improve sooner or later through examining for themselves the current international situation and thereby learn something from it. This hope was based on the belief that when any people acquires its freedom and runs on its own, it will have more appreciation for the love of country and people, and so create absolute unity.

In the days when supremacy of arms decided victory, it was through Eritrea that the enemy successively carried out acts of aggression on us; today, our enemies are trying to conduct propaganda campaigns against us through this same part. If Eritrea, as Ethiopia"s outlet, now becomes the scene of a propaganda campaign as it was the entrance of the enemy to the country, who is to lose and who is to gain? The people of Eritrea have felt what it means to live under foreign rule during the 60 years of subjugation. The other parts of Ethiopia have also experienced alien domination during the five years of tribulation.

Fought for Eritrea

As such there can hardly be any other who knows the disadvantages and advantages of foreign rule better than we do. Who was there to voice the cause of Eritreans either on international or other forums during all that period when we were separated and at which time you were sweltering under the heels of colonialism? Did not those who are now trying to divide some of us through using some traitors as instruments, then know of the existence of Eritrea? Was there any nation or government which, other than organizing itself, had uttered a word on religious lines before the time Ethiopia was fighting on the international arena for the rights of her brothers after she fought for her freedom following the Second World War?

Ethiopia began fighting for the liberation of Eritrea long before she recovered from the economic depletion suffered through the war. Ethiopia made this struggle in the interest of Eritrea because she knew that Eritreans are her blood-brothers.

You know that there are a lot of reasons for Ethio-Eritrean oneness. The relation of the people of Eritrea with Ethiopia is not confined to the political aspect. Not only are the two people joined by culture, geography and language, but historically the Adoulis heritage shows that the other Ethiopian tribes originated from Eritrea. Throughout Ethiopia"s long record as an independent entity, Eritrea was separated from us for only 60 years and even if we were separated by political and artificial barriers during this short span of time, we were unseparated in our way of life and mutual feeling.

Throughout the period when Eritrea was under colonial rule, a great number of not only those elders who previously knew the value of liberty, but also Eritrean youth who were born during the foreign occupation and who subsequently left their parents fled to Our Capital. This is adequately proved by the large number of Eritreans who, since a long time, disseminated in other parts of Ethiopia, found jobs in various government institutions and other services and thus lived among us. It is equally known that every time they came to us we sent them, knowing that they were time-separated brothers, to various places for higher education abroad. Upon their return they were placed in responsible positions so that they may be helpful and a source of pride to Ethiopia and particularly to their foreign dominated kinsmen. Though We need not elaborate on this list of people, the ones who are still alive from among those who got this opportunity are living evidences of this fact.

Valiant Stand

When our country was invaded, a great number of Eritreans, who were physically and otherwise fit, abandoned the enemy and fought on our side at Maichew and Neghelli. Those who survived death have made valiant stands with patriots throughout the five years, by deeds of patriotism and shown with their blood that we are one and the same. Though We do not mention the names of those whom we know and ones who were with Us on the battlefield, their memories will be passed on in the pages of history. When later on the federation of Eritrea with the motherland was being debated, they came on Our side recalling their past historical riches, and proved Our historical oneness before the world forum.

Those who, in the light of all these historical ties and evidence of unity, are coming between Us on religious, ethnical and other grounds are doing so not for our benefit but for that of their own. This can be easily understood. That former colonial powers are benefiting from creating discord among geographically, economically, historically and ethnically linked people in Africa and other parts of the world in order to maintain their former authority is known not only to those who can read but to the illiterate as well. Nobody knows better than We Africans that the policy of divide and rule are the aspirations of those who seek to benefit at others" expense. That it is the obsolete method of dividing to rule in order to rule by dividing is apparent.

Being aware of the attacks and tricks of imperialism, Ethiopia has been the first African country who waged war against such powers and through her unity, has preserved her liberty through victories as in the recent case of Adua. More than being an example to the rest of the African states, after the Second World War, Ethiopia struggled alone in International Conferences, for African independence with no other free African nations to support her as at present. No greater testimony could be available to the resistance made by Our patriots against the enemy on seven fronts with the use of out-dated weapons than the heroic activities of Our fathers, relying upon God the Almighty.

Bad Intention

You should be aware of the fact, that as Ethiopia has been a country which fought against imperialism more than any other, those who approach you with a contradictory propaganda against Ethiopia do so with the intention of belittling our historical standing considering Us as wishing to use our power to control others. Being proud of Our admirable and outstanding history We have been enthusiastically engaged in guarding Our own rights and there has been no time that We interfered in the internal affairs of other countries. We have signed and respected the resolutions passed by the Afro-Asian Conference at Bandung, that no one nation shall interfere in the domestic affairs of another. We shall continue to uphold this policy for future use also. It is up to the Ethiopian people to consider the short-comings and difficulties in their internal administration and solve it by themselves. Ethiopia does not desire to exist by formulating false external propaganda with the intention of hiding her internal difficulties.

That unity is the basic foundation for progress in this era is being proved through the massive movement made in Europe, the Middle East as well as by African countries towards reaching this goal. We will waste no more time in details since there is no one here unaware of the strength to be gained through unity in the protection of a country.

Existing conditions have made it impossible for the former colonialist powers to remain in Africa. They have resorted to the idea of dividing the peoples. You are aware that conferences are being held to federate in order not to lose their independence through the man-made boundaries laid by the colonialists. Ethiopia has consistently expressed her desire for African solidarity as a participant in these same conferences.

There are certain states who participate as supporters in conferences held for African unity and are at the same time engaged in acts that would divide Africa. Can we then accept this as in support to Our cause? No doubt that people of a country who have fought incessantly for their independence understand that unity is the foundation of liberty. Cooperation and unity are the sources of respect. It is also the source of strength. It has been known from time immemorial in human history that no person is able to understand and solve one"s own problem than one"s self.

False Propaganda

There is no better example than the privilege enjoyed by the Muslims and other foreigners in engaging themselves in all kinds of business activities in this country to disprove the false propaganda made against Ethiopia in connection with religious and racial discrimination.

Why did the Islamic population of Ethiopia remain faithful and fight along with Us as patriots for the independence of their country if they had been discriminated against in religion according to the false saying? Especially the Arabs and Muslims of the neighbouring countries, have been closely tied up with Us from the time of the Prophet Mohammed, not only geographically, but also in blood relations, and other Arab nationalities are residing, widely scattered throughout the whole land in the cities, towns and the countryside, running large business and commercial enterprises with no restrictions for residence permits and passports like other aliens are doing in accordance with the law of Our country. Equal rights granted to foreigners and equally to all Ethiopians without any religious or racial discrimination is an outstanding example to prove the compatibility of the Ethiopian policy and administration. Would it be possible for foreign Muslims to migrate into Ethiopia in excessive number and live and assimilate here for three or four generations if the Government practised any religious discrimination against them? It is because of the long-standing friendship, dating back to the past several centuries, that they are permitted freely to lead their own society from generation to generation and that We never stopped the Muslims from transferring the wealth they acquired in Ethiopia with an ample opportunity not enjoyed in any other country, for the economic development of their respective governments.

It is probably due to the increase in the number of defaulting debtors that Our generosity has not been acknowledged.

The fact that Ethiopia"s kindness and goodwill has not been acknowledged by the beneficiaries led Us to mention all this and to make known at the same time Our ability to react to the full extent to any criticism not only to show how baseless is the propaganda on religious matters launched against Us, but to explain that the effect will be only harmful to its instigators.

Mutual Respect

It is not only through acceptance of foreign immigrants from neighbouring countries that Ethiopia has maintained good relationship with other nations, but also by respecting in good faith the diplomatic sentiments of these same countries. When international questions arise directly affecting her neighbours, Ethiopia cautiously takes her time before making any rash decisions. It must be realized that Ethiopia passes her own resolutions only after those countries affected have taken a deliberate consideration of the question. It is not out of fear that Ethiopia pays special attention to the resolutions freely passed by countries that claim to be bound by religious ties, but it is for the sake of maintaining the feeling of friendship and to respect the spirit of understanding. Furthermore, it is in realization of the fact that love, generosity and understanding are evidence of the administrative experience of any government.

As for development in the economic field, Eritrea has partaken in the progress so far achieved by the whole of Ethiopia. In the study of the development programme of the Empire, the economic problems of Eritrea have been considered with the other twelve parts of Ethiopia on equal footing. Lying as she does at our sea outlet, and since her agricultural potential cannot be developed as much as those of the other part of Ethiopia, Eritrea has, in fact, had a greater share with respect to water power, the construction of means of communication as well as industries and ports.

In the period of the last ten years which followed the re-union of Eritrea with the motherland, a total of more than $74,819,817 has been allotted to the general economic development of the area. This money has gone for work on the construction of roads, airport, the opening of air communications, schools, hospitals, clinics, as well as the training of nurses, the setting up of development projects, the building of churches and mosques. In addition, you all know that We have done everything possible to help by way of exempting you from taxes when locusts occasionally destroyed the harvest or when a general epidemic struck the territory.

Part of Ethiopia

As Eritrea is a part of Ethiopia, were it not for other reasons, it would have been unnecessary to make mention of what has especially been done for her. As long as God offers Us the opportunity to do so, it is Our wish to improve on it and help more. What led Us to talk on this is the false propaganda of certain detractors who talk as if nothing has been done for Eritrea.

We are concerned with the advancement of the people of Eritrea for the future as well. Since industrial progress and development works are linked with the culture, climatic conditions, sources of power and raw materials, no project will get underway before the necessary study is first made. In accordance with this, We have decided to set up a federally composed development committee. The committee, planned to start work shortly, will be entrusted with the task of studying the condition, needs and requirements of Eritrea with a view to working on projects best suited to solve existing problems and improve the standard of living of our people.

With the aim of speeding up agricultural development, We had earlier rather hastily dammed Zula. A further study was, however, found to be necessary. The result of the study, made by an American research bureau has now been received. It is for this reason that work on the dam has been delayed. On the basis of the study for the work remaining to be done before the dam reaches completion, it has been made known to Us that a further $19,000,000 would be required. Since it would take time to complete the dam with the amount of money allotted for the job, We have further been given to understand that it would be advisable for farmers to settle in the Zula valley while work is going on there. Since it has been found out to be a basic requirement to create an organization that would supervise the remaining work and see to it that the farmers settle in the place in question according to plan, We have decided to set up a department - to be administered by a special board - the Zula Valley Authority.

You have to understand much more that development programmes and administrative reforms can only be carried out when law and order is maintained in the area. When a certain outlaw takes to hiding as a result of his own criminal acts, foreign enemies and those among us who allowed themselves to be used as the tool of alien propaganda have, by attempting to make this appear as if it had any political aim, endangered the peace and the right of people to their property. We have realized how detrimental the effect of this has been on the country"s economy. The maintenance of a more adequate order in future is a matter of concern. We have passed orders to Lt. General Abbiye Abebe and Bitwo-iled Asfaha to see to it, as Brig-General Tedla Oukbit has done along with the Police, that the work is done.

Taxes Remitted

We will pay the taxes, due for the last two years, of

those people whose harvests have been destroyed by locusts.

We are doing this so that the Eritrean treasury may not

face a deficit.

What We wish to remind not only the people of Eritrea but those of the entire Ethiopian Empire as well is the fact, that for countries such as ours that are not economically developed, poverty and ignorance are our common enemies. It is evident that any opposing force can only undermine our efforts with the support of these same two weaknesses. For this reason, the eradication of poverty and ignorance is a tested reason, of attaining meaningful independence free of economic and political dependence. The means of destroying poverty and ignorance are education and work. Mere talk is the instrument of the lazy and would not take us anywhere. The aim of those leaders that is based on ambition for power and personal gain is one with no firm foundation and will, consequently, crumble easily.

We would like to make it clear to you that, as We have already repeatedly pointed out, you should bear in mind that unity is the most lasting foundation for progress and development, as well as for greatness and freedom. To imagine our transitory existence here on earth to be permanent and not to make what we say correspond with what we feel and think is detrimental to a country and its people and is something that could be considered as pushing ourselves into an unforeseen precipice.

The age we are living in is one in which the value of unity is being appreciated more than ever before. On our part, we have triumphed over the attempt that was made to divide us. A foreign hand is concerned about itself; it will not work for us. It is essential that we bear in mind the fact that at a time when we are exploring ways and means of forging unity with neighbouring countries, division among ourselves will not only be an obstacle but that it will also open the door to our enemies. May God the Almighty guide you in the carrying out of the heavy responsibility with which We have entrusted you.

Messenger: ConsciousRas Sent: 1/25/2014 1:04:29 PM

Yes i rastaman, i n i hail from kenya but i roots is in ethiopia, in a town called nagelle and the mountains of dire dawa. The i encounters the foolish thoughts about how HIM was a greedy man who stole money and fed his dogs meat while his people were starving. They even came to say they burried HIM in a toilet but i n i know that HIM no dead, the uprising is overway rasta, the yutes are suddenly becoming conscious about Rastafari and how HIM was a great man who only saw the inity of all afticans. A petition is overway to put a statue of HiM in ethiopia because he founded the true organization of african inity and not the current so called african union where it is a political arena and no organization takes place at all rather its countries sidelining with each other because Africa now is a hotspot for development and countries want to eevelop materially thus greed and corruption is very high.
Especially the working class, they dont even know who HIm is as propaganda has taken over Aftica. The Rastafari movement is still strong and very positive promoting the use of ganjah and reasoning like Kings. Ive read most of the propaganda about HIM from ither ethiopians and they speak ill while others praise him for the great man he was. But i n i is not even concered about that because it is just confusion.
The speeches of HIM are in circulation and the youths are learning the great works of His Imperial Majesty. Reggae music is also on the rise and people smoke freely but still cautiously as babylon is always watching from a corner.
As the political arena keeps people in the confusion, i n i are still blazing the fire.

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/25/2014 1:51:39 PM

Believe me King, that sound excellent. What a joyous revelation on the youth mindset. I and I hear all them rumours and lie from long time and dispel them long time too, but to hear and see the same awakening occurring, especially in that sacred land of Kush and His Majesty. Yes I. Give thanks. Itinue the works Far-I

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Haile Selassie I